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Variety 43 minutes ago. Doctor facing life in prison for thousands of opioid doses By the time drug enforcement agents swooped into his small medical office in Martinsville, Virginia, in , Dr. Joel Smithers had prescribed about a half a million doses of highly addictive opioids in two years. The first steel archway bridge near the falls was completed in In about , the English industrial chemist Hugh Lee Pattinson traveled to Canada, stopping at the Niagara Falls long enough to make the earliest known photograph of the falls, a daguerreotype in the collection of Newcastle University.
It was once believed that the small figure standing silhouetted with a top hat was added by an engraver working from imagination as well as the daguerreotype as his source, but the figure is clearly present in the photograph. After the First World War , tourism boomed again, as automobiles made getting to the falls much easier.
The story of Niagara Falls in the 20th century is largely that of efforts to harness the energy of the falls for hydroelectric power , and to control the development on both sides that threaten the area's natural beauty. In , the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission completed the third current crossing in the immediate area of Niagara Falls with the Rainbow Bridge , carrying both pedestrian and vehicular traffic between the two countries and Canadian and U.
A team from the U. Army Corps of Engineers created a dam on the American Falls in June to clear rock from the base of the falls. Rock slides caused a significant buildup of rock at the bottom of the American side of the falls, and the engineers were to clean up the rock and repair some faults to prevent eventual erosion of the American side of the waterfall. The engineers cleared the rock debris and tested for safety, finishing the project in November of that year.
Water flow was restored on November 25, Before the late 20th century, the northeastern end of the Horseshoe Falls was in the United States, flowing around the Terrapin Rocks, which were once connected to Goat Island by a series of bridges. In , the area between the rocks and Goat Island was filled in, creating Terrapin Point. Army Corps of Engineers filled in more land and built diversion dams and retaining walls to force the water away from Terrapin Point.
The only recorded freeze-up of the river and falls was due to an ice jam on March 29, Although the falls commonly ice up most winters, the river and the falls do not freeze completely. The years , , , , , , and are noted for the falls icing up. The enormous energy of Niagara Falls has long been recognized as a potential source of power. The first known effort to harness the waters was in , when Daniel Joncaire built a small canal above the falls to power his sawmill.
Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery. In , the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Mining Company was chartered, which eventually constructed the canals that would be used to generate electricity. In , under the leadership of Jacob F. Schoellkopf , the Niagara River 's first hydroelectric generating station was built.
In , a five-member International Niagara Commission headed by Sir William Thomson among other distinguished scientists deliberated on the expansion of Niagara hydroelectric capacity based on seventeen proposals, but could not select any as the best combined project for hydraulic development and distribution.
In , Westinghouse Electric which had built the smaller-scale Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant near Ophir, Colorado , two years earlier was hired to design a system to generate alternating current on Niagara Falls, and three years after that this large-scale AC power system was created activated on August 26, By , financing from moguls including J. Private companies on the Canadian side also began to harness the energy of the falls.
The Government of Ontario eventually brought power transmission operations under public control in , distributing Niagara's energy to various parts of the Canadian province. Other hydropower plants were also being built along the Niagara River. But in , disaster struck when the region's largest hydropower station was partially destroyed in a landslide.
This drastically reduced power production and put tens of thousands of manufacturing jobs at stake. In , when the Niagara Falls hydroelectric project went online, it was the largest hydropower facility in the Western world. Today, Niagara is still the largest electricity producer in New York state, with a generating capacity of 2. The water then passes through hydroelectric turbines that supply power to nearby areas of Canada and the United States before returning to the river well past the falls.
When electrical demand is low, the Lewiston units can operate as pumps to transport water from the lower bay back up to the plant's reservoir , allowing this water to be used again during the daytime when electricity use peaks. During peak electrical demand, the same Lewiston pumps are reversed and actually become generators, similar to those at the Moses plant. To preserve Niagara Falls' natural beauty, a treaty signed by the U. The treaty allows higher summertime diversion at night when tourists are fewer and during the winter months when there are even fewer tourists.
During winter, the Power Authority of New York works with Ontario Power Generation to prevent ice on the Niagara River from interfering with power production or causing flooding of shoreline property. Together, Niagara's generating stations can produce about 4. In August Ontario Power Generation , which is responsible for the Sir Adam Beck stations, started a major civil engineering project, called the Niagara Tunnel Project , to increase power production by building a new It was officially placed into service in March , helping to increase the generating complex's nameplate capacity by megawatts.
It did so by tapping water from farther up the Niagara River than was possible with the preexisting arrangement. The tunnel provided new hydroelectricity for approximately , homes. Ships can bypass Niagara Falls by means of the Welland Canal , which was improved and incorporated into the Saint Lawrence Seaway in the mids. While the seaway diverted water traffic from nearby Buffalo and led to the demise of its steel and grain mills, other industries in the Niagara River valley flourished with the help of the electric power produced by the river. However, since the s the region has declined economically.
The Rainbow Bridge , just downriver from the falls, affords the closest view of the falls and is open to non-commercial vehicle traffic and pedestrians. The Whirlpool Rapids Bridge lies one mile 1. Nearby Niagara Falls International Airport and Buffalo Niagara International Airport were named after the waterfall, as were Niagara University , countless local businesses, and even an asteroid. Niagara Falls have long been a source of inspiration for explorers, travelers, artists, authors, filmmakers, residents and visitors, few of whom realize the falls were nearly devoted solely to industrial and commercial use.
In the s, sightseers had limited access to Niagara Falls and often had to pay for a glimpse, and industrialization threatened to carve up Goat Island to further expand commercial development. Other industrial encroachments and lack of public access led to a conservation movement in the U. Church approached Lord Dufferin , governor-general of Canada, with a proposal for international discussions on the establishment of a public park. Goat Island was one of the inspirations for the American side of the effort. William Dorsheimer , moved by the scene from the island, brought Olmsted to Buffalo in to design a city park system and helped promote Olmsted's career.
Gardner to survey the falls and to create the single most important document in the Niagara preservation movement, a Special Report on the preservation of Niagara Falls.
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The report advocated for State purchase, restoration and preservation through public ownership of the scenic lands surrounding Niagara Falls. Restoring the former beauty of the falls was described in the report as a "sacred obligation to mankind. Preservationists' efforts were rewarded on April 30, , when Governor David B. Hill signed legislation creating the Niagara Reservation, New York's first state park. In , Olmsted and Calvert Vaux issued a supplemental report detailing plans to restore the falls. Their intent was "to restore and conserve the natural surroundings of the Falls of Niagara, rather than to attempt to add anything thereto," and the report anticipated fundamental questions.
How would preservationists provide access without destroying the beauty of the falls? How would they restore natural landscapes damaged by man? They planned a park with scenic roadways, paths and a few shelters designed to protect the landscape while allowing large numbers of visitors to enjoy the falls. Preservationists continue to strive to strike a balance between Olmsted's idyllic vision and the realities of administering a popular scenic attraction. Preservation efforts continued well into the 20th century.
That limitation remained in effect until Erosion control efforts have always been of extreme importance. Underwater weirs redirect the most damaging currents, and the top of the falls has also been strengthened. In June , the Niagara River was completely diverted from the American Falls for several months through construction of a temporary rock and earth dam clearly visible in the photo at right.
While the Horseshoe Falls absorbed the extra flow, the U. Army Corps of Engineers studied the riverbed and mechanically bolted and strengthened any faults they found; faults that would, if left untreated, have hastened the retreat of the American Falls. A plan to remove the huge mound of talus deposited in was abandoned owing to cost, and in November , the temporary dam was dynamited , restoring flow to the American Falls.
Even after these undertakings, Luna Island , the small piece of land between the main waterfall and the Bridal Veil, remained off limits to the public for years owing to fears that it was unstable and could collapse into the gorge. Commercial interests have continued to encroach on the land surrounding the state park, including the construction of several tall buildings most of them hotels on the Canadian side. The result is a significant alteration and urbanisation of the landscape.
One study indicated it has caused the airflow near the falls to change direction. Students at the University of Guelph demonstrated, using scale models, that as air passes over the top of the new hotels it causes a breeze to roll down the south sides of the buildings and spill into the gorge below the falls, where it feeds into a whirlpool of moisture and air.
The inference was that a documented rise in the number of "mist days" was a result of these breezes, where mist days refers to the mist plume of the falls reaching landside. In there were 29 mist days recorded, but by that number had risen to However, this study does not offer opinion as to why mist days have been increasing, just that the hotel breezes are an unlikely cause.
New York State used funds from the re-licensing of the New York Power Authority hydroelectric plant downriver in Lewiston, New York, to rebuild walking paths on the Three Sisters Islands and to plant native vegetation on the islands. The state also renovated the area around Prospect Point at the brink of the American Falls in the state park. In October , Sam Patch , who called himself "the Yankee Leapster", jumped from a high tower into the gorge below the falls and survived; this began a long tradition of daredevils trying to go over the falls. On October 24, , year-old Michigan school teacher Annie Edson Taylor became the first person to go over the falls in a barrel as a publicity stunt; she survived, bleeding, but otherwise unharmed.
Soon after exiting the barrel, she said, "No one ought ever do that again. Contrary to rumours at the time, the cat survived the plunge unharmed and later posed with Taylor in photographs. Some have survived unharmed, but others have drowned or been severely injured. Survivors face charges and stiff fines, as it is illegal, on both sides of the border, to attempt to go over the falls. In , there was a near disaster when a barge, known locally as the Niagara Scow , working upriver broke its tow, and almost plunged over the falls. The two workers on board saved themselves by grounding the vessel on rocks just short of the falls, where it has remained ever since.
Englishman Captain Matthew Webb , the first man to swim the English Channel , drowned in trying to swim the rapids downriver from the falls. In the "Miracle at Niagara", Roger Woodward, a seven-year-old American boy, was swept over the Horseshoe Falls protected only by a life vest on July 9, , as two tourists pulled his year-old sister Deanne from the river only 20 feet 6. In , he was fatally injured while attempting to re-create the Niagara drop at the Houston Astrodome. After his barrel released prematurely, it hit the side of the tank and he died the next day from his injuries. In August , Steve Trotter , an aspiring stuntman from Rhode Island , became the youngest person ever age 22 and the first American in 25 years to go over the falls in a barrel.
Ten years later, Trotter went over the falls again, becoming the second person to go over the falls twice and survive. It was also the second-ever "duo"; Lori Martin joined Trotter for the barrel ride over the falls. They survived the fall but their barrel became stuck at the bottom of the falls, requiring a rescue. On September 28, , Niagara natives Peter DeBernardi age 42 and Jeffery James Petkovich age 25 became the first "team" to make it over the falls in a two-person barrel.
The stunt was conceived by DeBenardi, who wanted to discourage youth from following in his path of addictive drug use. The pair emerged shortly after going over with minor injuries and were charged with performing an illegal stunt under the Niagara Parks Act.
Swimming Upriver: Coming of Age in Appalachia - Judy Harwood - Google книги
On June 5, , Jesse Sharp, a whitewater canoeist from Tennessee paddled over the falls in a closed deck canoe. He neglected to wear a helmet to make his face more visible for photographs of the event. He also did not wear a life vest because he believed it would hinder his escape from the hydraulics at the base of the falls. After we got recollected at the hotel, Papa drove us back to where he picked us up yesterday. We walked the half mile back to the trail only to find some magic waiting.
We waited around to see if we might see a moose as we figured only a moose would have food this far from a road. He never showed himself. Today is going to be a quick up and down over the mountains named for the hero of the area—Betty Crocker. It was an easy climb to West Crocker Mountain where we took our time enjoying the views on the crisp clear morning. It was only 42 when we got to the first overlook where we got a clear view of Sugarloaf Mountain. To our left, we could see the Bigelow Mountains which are considered the last tough section we will have until we get to Katahdin.
The cool air kept us moving fast today. Coming down the north side we found another milestone; the mile mark. Whenever we get close to a mile tick, I have Bunny watch Guthook closely so I can document the approximate exact moment. This one was right on the white blaze itself. The remaining 2. Chip called Seth, aka Papa Smurf, who promptly picked us up. Instead of heading right back to town, he asked if we minded taking a detour to look for two hikers at Sugar Mountain. Of course we agreed since it was early afternoon.
We looked around for them only to discover that they had told the wrong location and were really at the gas station where we had breakfast. We had a time boon getting through our mileage so quickly today. We decided to make use of this time by doing laundry, shopping, and eating ice cream. Tomorrow we become hikers again. GCN turned over a new leaf today and woke everyone up early trying to regain our trust. Let he without reverberations be the first to shake others awake. We all have earplugs if we need them. Staci picked us up and returned to the scene of the old devils with evil eyes.
Truth be told, they are just a little bit older than Bear. If all goes according to plan, there will be four 55 year olds and one crusty Bear summiting Katahdin when we finally make it. We made it a point to not sit at the same table we sat at two days ago. Blue hair is frightening to those only having white. Bear read his daily news digest and reported that there were three mass shootings across the US yesterday. A banner day even for us. But then he followed it up that there was only 2 deaths and a half dozen critical injuries between the three of them.
But I will concede sitting in a gas station in a gun crazed backwoods is probably not the best location to make such statements. On the drive back to the trailhead, Staci told us that she saw a moose after dropping us off yesterday. This got our hopes up on the drive in today. Coming around a turn, there was the biggest bull moose I have ever seen this being my second. Staci stopped so I could get my camera and produce evidence, but by the time I was ready, he had already headed into the woods.
I tried to follow him but he disappeared as soon as he went in. GCN agrees to go the right direction today without argument. It felt right to me as well. Im going to put the failure of yesterday out of my mind. It was foggy from the get-go as we climbed up Spaulding Mountain. The more elevation we gained, the more the weather deteriorated. By the time we reached Spaulding Mountain Lean-to many, we needed a break from the rain.
We ducked in and another four sobos came in from the wrong direction from our perspective, but sobos do everything backwards. It was too windy to use my umbrella so I needed a break from the rain. Since is was raining steady, foggy, and windy, we decided to skip climb to top of Sugarloaf Mountain. When we came around to the west side of the mountain, we were hit with gale force wind. It was seriously scary. Walking along the open cliffs,the wind caught my pack cover and nearly twisted me off of the mountain. We had to use our poles to keep from being blown into the mountain. In the dangerous open areas, we passed singly but kept together as a group.
We had three sets of open cliffs to pass in these winds. The trail drops down fast and we were glad of that. By time we got to the bottom, the sun was shining and all was calm. Papa Smurf met us on the road walk out. As with most trail names, there are two Papa Smurfs this year but only one Easily Forgotten. Our gear was already at the hotel when we arrived and Staci had reserved us two private rooms telling them to take good care of us when we arrived.
We got settled in, cleaned up, and rested before heading to the hotel across street where Papa Smurf also cooks. He has decided to over-winter in Stratton this year where he will manage one hotel, cook at another, and rent gear at Sugarloaf Ski area. Stratton is not a big town but it is welcoming to former thru-hikers like Papa Smurf who finished his thru-hike almost 2 months ago. GCN quietly woke up at GCN quietly left the sleeping room to shower and eat breakfast. GCN quietly packed his bag for the day. GCN quietly got dressed.
We had 15 minutes to get dressed, eat, and finish packing before Staci arrived. We took 20 minutes to do what we had planned to do in an hour. This was most difficult for Bear and Sassy who both have to put in contact lenses in addition to everything else. I have to take responsibility for this one. I loaded the poles which were all piled together in the sitting room. I swear I counted 8 poles when I picked them up. Granted, I would have liked to head north as well, but if we did that today it would mean that we were skipping a section instead of going sobo. Guthook was referred to, but even then, GCN was still disoriented.
While the direction discussion was happening, I asked Sassy if we should wait for them to catch up. Bear is confessing to Chip about us, today. I knew they had lied to us about being married 14 instead of 13 years—nothing would surprise me after that betrayal. Sassy told me that they felt the need to come clean to Chip about being section hikers. If we are all going to hike to a Katahdin together, Chip should know the truth.
After the way Bear and Sassy had been treated at Hikers Welcome Hostel in NH, I told them when people ask when they started, either just answer April or let me answer for all of us and they can say April afterwards. I will establish that Bunny and I are thru-hiking but imply all of us in the response.
Integrity and honesty get in the way once again. Not all thru-hikers are as welcoming of section scum like Bunny and I are. GCN has been taken aback at times with how much the four of us sing along the trail while we are hiking. I feel, in my heart, that GCN might not have the pitch perfect vocal range that the four of us have been displaying on a regular basis. To assuage his fears and calm his nerves, I brought up the subject of musical influences in our lives. I even dressed like him for a while. This was not what I would consider a good look for a young Chip Norris.
When I started hyperventilating, GCN asked me what was wrong. Nonetheless, I picked up my pace for a bit. It was a steady, but not difficult climb to Poplar Ridge Lean-to where Inch Worm disappeared about 6 years ago. She was a woman in her early 60s solo hiking, but meeting her husband at road crossings almost every day.
At the time of her disappearance, it gained national attention. It was speculated that she might have wandered into the Naval SERE training center next to the trail here.
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This is where terrorist scenarios are acted out by Seal teams and the CIA. The training is supposed to very intense and very real. It was a full 2 years until her body was found starved to death in her tent just a short distance off of the trail. She must have wandered off trail to pee and got disoriented—the woods are very thick when even moose can disappear with ease.
She was on medicine to combat panic attacks but had run out. After the shelter, GCN took a hard fall. We stop shortly after the fall to take a break and allow Chip to recover a bit. I noticed him sitting off by himself with his back to us. I wanted to approach him and help him become adjusted to the revelation that he was hiking with section hikers—after all, Bunny and I have had nearly 2 months to adjust ourselves. As we neared the ridge atop of Saddleback Mountain, GCN was beginning to become his old jovial self once again. I think I even heard him whistling a bit.
The view from the ridge was amazing because a front had settled in the area immediately above the trail. In fact, the AT was the front with the cloud face lined up directly overhead. We stopped to admire the views before proceeding down into the abandoned ski area. It was much quicker today since we knew the area and what was in store ahead. Once again, Staci picked us up and took us shopping for tomorrow. We had gone much faster than we had thought because it was still before 3 when we were all back at the hostel. We had time for naps and getting cleaned up before we crossed the street for supper.
Staci will run our gear to Stratton Hotel which she also owns tomorrow after she drops us off. We will put all of our extra gear in trash bags for her to deliver. We called it an early night after supper, but it was dark. There were a couple of tables in the back. The five of us took the larger table so we could spread out a bit. As soon as we got all situated, we knew we had made a mistake when a local group of seniors came in and started giving us the evil eye. If they would have been 30 years younger, there would have been a rumble.
Staci dropped us off where her son had picked us up yesterday. Only the last 2 miles was going to be really steep. I had formed a picture in my mind of a pepperoni and cheese covered rock. Bunny and I climbed up to Piazza Rock while the rest of tramily went on ahead. Reality was not as thrilling as my minds eye had set me up for. Near the junction of the side trail to Piazza Rock was a trail in the opposite direction to Piazza Rock Lean-to. This was a worthwhile side trip to the shelter which has a sun roof and a two seater privy for those who wish to share a game of cribbage during their intimate moment.
The clouds started rolling in as we stopped for a snack at Ethel Pond. This would have been an ideal setting for a moose sighting.
Once again, they skipped over us. The final 2 miles were steep but held some outstanding views. By the time we arrived at the summit, the clouds were almost completely covering the mountain. Staci told us, and Guthook confirmed, that there exists a side trail at the peak which leads down to the ski area below.
We searched and searched but had no luck in locating the trail. While searching for the trail, Bunny met a section hiker named Bru. He offered us assistance because he was familiar with the area. As they were talking, Bru asked where we were from. When Bunny said Cape Girardeau, he said his wife had just given a talk there.
Bunny was able to deduce that his wife is Jennifer Phar Davis. When she went to show him, she realized she had switched them for a clean pair this morning see what awkward situations obsessions with cleanliness can cause and was wearing a different brand. To save face, Bunny ended up giving him a candy bar and sent him on his way. After Chip and I found the side trail on the false summit, I started heading down while he went back to let everyone know we had found it.
There was a shelter not far down the trail which was an emergency aid station. I tried the doors, but it was locked up tight. The climb down the ski run to the abandoned lodge was really hard on the knees. Everyone else has already shown they have no integrity on the trail. Good Chip Norris has slack packed before now.
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When we got to the abandoned ski lodge, GCN called Staci to pick us up. On the way back to town, we got to see a porcupine on the road. A big plus to slack packing is seeing more wildlife from the car. In these modern times, even wildlife has to come to town more and more to share in modern conveniences such as dumpsters for food not unlike thru-hikers looking for a bargain. Staci convinced us that we needed to get going early tomorrow and that she should pick us up at a f-ing m.